Competition Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-34)

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Act current to 2018-07-05 and last amended on 2018-05-01. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Unpaid monetary penalty

 The amount of an administrative monetary penalty imposed on a person under subsection 79(3.1) is a debt due to Her Majesty in right of Canada and may be recovered as such from that person in a court of competent jurisdiction.

  • 2002, c. 16, s. 11.5;
  • 2018, c. 8, s. 114(E).

Delivered Pricing

Definition of delivered pricing

  •  (1) For the purposes of section 81, delivered pricing means the practice of refusing a customer, or a person seeking to become a customer, delivery of an article at any place in which the supplier engages in a practice of making delivery of the article to any other of the supplier’s customers on the same trade terms that would be available to the first-mentioned customer if his place of business were located in that place.

  • Definition of trade terms

    (2) For the purposes of subsection (1), the expression trade terms means terms in respect of payment, units of purchase and reasonable technical and servicing requirements.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 45.
Marginal note:Delivered pricing
  •  (1) Where, on application by the Commissioner, the Tribunal finds that delivered pricing is engaged in by a major supplier of an article in a market or is widespread in a market with the result that a customer, or a person seeking to become a customer, is denied an advantage that would otherwise be available to him in the market, the Tribunal may make an order prohibiting all or any of such suppliers from engaging in delivered pricing.

  • Marginal note:Exception where significant capital investment needed

    (2) No order shall be made against a supplier under this section where the Tribunal finds that the supplier could not accommodate any additional customers at a locality without making significant capital investment at that locality.

  • Marginal note:Exception where trade-mark used

    (3) No order shall be made against a supplier under this section in respect of a practice of refusing a customer delivery of an article that the customer sells in association with a trade-mark that the supplier owns or in respect of which the supplier is a registered user where the Tribunal finds that the practice is necessary to maintain a standard of quality in respect of the article.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 45;
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 37.

Foreign Judgments and Laws

Marginal note:Foreign judgments, etc.

 Where, on application by the Commissioner, the Tribunal finds that

  • (a) a judgment, decree, order or other process given, made or issued by or out of a court or other body in a country other than Canada can be implemented in whole or in part by persons in Canada, by companies incorporated by or pursuant to an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, or by measures taken in Canada, and

  • (b) the implementation in whole or in part of the judgment, decree, order or other process in Canada, would

    • (i) adversely affect competition in Canada,

    • (ii) adversely affect the efficiency of trade or industry in Canada without bringing about or increasing in Canada competition that would restore or improve that efficiency,

    • (iii) adversely affect the foreign trade of Canada without compensating advantages, or

    • (iv) otherwise restrain or injure trade or commerce in Canada without compensating advantages,

    the Tribunal may, by order, direct that

  • (c) no measures be taken in Canada to implement the judgment, decree, order or process, or

  • (d) no measures be taken in Canada to implement the judgment, decree, order or process except in such manner as the Tribunal prescribes for the purpose of avoiding an effect referred to in subparagraphs (b)(i) to (iv).

  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 45;
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 37.
Marginal note:Foreign laws and directives
  •  (1) Where, on application by the Commissioner, the Tribunal finds that a decision has been or is about to be made by a person in Canada or a company incorporated by or pursuant to an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province

    • (a) as a result of

      • (i) a law in force in a country other than Canada, or

      • (ii) a directive, instruction, intimation of policy or other communication to that person or company or to any other person from

        • (A) the government of a country other than Canada or of any political subdivision thereof that is in a position to direct or influence the policies of that person or company, or

        • (B) a person in a country other than Canada who is in a position to direct or influence the policies of that person or company,

        where the communication is for the purpose of giving effect to a law in force in a country other than Canada,

      and that the decision, if implemented, would have or would be likely to have any of the effects mentioned in subparagraphs 82(b)(i) to (iv), or

    • (b) as a result of a directive, instruction, intimation of policy or other communication to that person or company or to any other person, from a person in a country other than Canada who is in a position to direct or influence the policies of that person or company, where the communication is for the purpose of giving effect to a conspiracy, combination, agreement or arrangement entered into outside Canada that, if entered into in Canada, would have been in contravention of section 45,

    the Tribunal may, by order, direct that

    • (c) in a case described in paragraph (a) or (b), no measures be taken by the person or company in Canada to implement the law, directive, instruction, intimation of policy or other communication, or

    • (d) in a case described in paragraph (a), no measures be taken by the person or company in Canada to implement the law, directive, instruction, intimation of policy or other communication except in such manner as the Tribunal prescribes for the purpose of avoiding an effect referred to in subparagraphs 82(b)(i) to (iv).

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (2) No application may be made by the Commissioner for an order under this section against a particular company where proceedings have been commenced under section 46 against that company based on the same or substantially the same facts as would be alleged in the application.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 45;
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 37.

Foreign Suppliers

Marginal note:Refusal to supply by foreign supplier

 Where, on application by the Commissioner, the Tribunal finds that a supplier outside Canada has refused to supply a product or otherwise discriminated in the supply of a product to a person in Canada (the “first” person) at the instance of and by reason of the exertion of buying power outside Canada by another person, the Tribunal may order any person in Canada (the “second” person) by whom or on whose behalf or for whose benefit the buying power was exerted

  • (a) to sell any such product of the supplier that the second person has obtained or obtains to the first person at the laid-down cost in Canada to the second person of the product and on the same terms and conditions as the second person obtained or obtains from the supplier; or

  • (b) not to deal or to cease to deal, in Canada, in that product of the supplier.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 45;
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 37.

Specialization Agreements

Marginal note:Definitions

 For the purposes of this section and sections 86 to 90,

article

article

article includes each separate type, size, weight and quality in which an article, within the meaning assigned by section 2, is produced; (article)

registered

inscrit

registered means registered in the register maintained pursuant to section 89; (inscrit)

specialization agreement

accord de spécialisation

specialization agreement means an agreement under which each party thereto agrees to discontinue producing an article or service that he is engaged in producing at the time the agreement is entered into on the condition that each other party to the agreement agrees to discontinue producing an article or service that he is engaged in producing at the time the agreement is entered into, and includes any such agreement under which the parties also agree to buy exclusively from each other the articles or services that are the subject of the agreement. (accord de spécialisation)

  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 45.
Marginal note:Order directing registration
  •  (1) Where, on application by any person, and after affording the Commissioner a reasonable opportunity to be heard, the Tribunal finds that an agreement that the person who has made the application has entered into or is about to enter into is a specialization agreement and that

    • (a) the implementation of the agreement is likely to bring about gains in efficiency that will be greater than, and will offset, the effects of any prevention or lessening of competition that will result or is likely to result from the agreement and the gains in efficiency would not likely be attained if the agreement were not implemented, and

    • (b) no attempt has been made by the persons who have entered or are about to enter into the agreement to coerce any person to become a party to the agreement,

    the Tribunal may, subject to subsection (4), make an order directing that the agreement be registered for a period specified in the order.

  • Marginal note:Factors to be considered

    (2) In considering whether an agreement is likely to bring about gains in efficiency described in paragraph (1)(a), the Tribunal shall consider whether those gains will result in

    • (a) a significant increase in the real value of exports; or

    • (b) a significant substitution of domestic articles or services for imported articles or services.

  • Marginal note:Redistribution of income does not result in gains in efficiency

    (3) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(a), the Tribunal shall not find that an agreement is likely to bring about gains in efficiency by reason only of a redistribution of income between two or more persons.

  • Marginal note:Conditional orders

    (4) Where, on an application under subsection (1), the Tribunal finds that an agreement meets the conditions prescribed by paragraphs (a) and (b) of that subsection but also finds that, as a result of the implementation of the agreement, there is not likely to be substantial competition remaining in the market or markets to which the agreement relates, the Tribunal may provide, in an order made under subsection (1), that the order shall take effect only if, within a reasonable period of time specified in the order, there has occurred any of the following events, specified in the order:

    • (a) the divestiture of particular assets, specified in the order;

    • (b) a wider licensing of patents, certificates of supplementary protection issued under the Patent Act or registered integrated circuit topographies;

    • (c) a reduction in tariffs;

    • (d) the making of an order in council under section 23 of the Financial Administration Act effecting a remission or remissions specified in the order of the Tribunal of any customs duties on an article that is a subject of the agreement; or

    • (e) the removal of import quotas or import licensing requirements.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 45;
  • 1990, c. 37, s. 32;
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 37;
  • 2017, c. 6, s. 125.
 
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