PART 9Pollution Prevention — Department of Transport (continued)
186 (1) Subject to subsection (2), this Part applies in respect of vessels in Canadian waters or waters in the exclusive economic zone of Canada.
(2) This Part does not apply in respect of a discharge of oil or gas from a vessel that is on location and engaged in the exploration or drilling for, or the production, conservation or processing of, oil or gas in an area described in paragraph 3(a) or (b) of the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act, in so far as the discharge emanates from those activities.
Definition of oil and gas
(3) In subsection (2), oil and gas have the same meaning as in section 2 of the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act.
Marginal note:General duties
186.1 (1) The authorized representative of a Canadian vessel must
(a) ensure that the vessel and its machinery and equipment meet the requirements of the regulations made under this Part;
(b) develop procedures for preventing the discharge of a pollutant and for dealing with emergencies;
(c) ensure that the crew receives training in emergency procedures; and
(d) ensure that the crew and passengers receive training in environmental protection.
Marginal note:Duties — Canadian maritime documents inspection
(2) The authorized representative of a Canadian vessel must ensure that
(a) the vessel and its machinery and equipment are inspected for the purpose of obtaining all of the Canadian maritime documents that are required under this Part; and
(b) every term or condition attached to a Canadian maritime document issued in respect of the vessel or its machinery or equipment is met.
Marginal note:Masters obtaining Canadian maritime documents
186.2 The master of a Canadian vessel must, before the vessel embarks on a voyage from a port in Canada, ensure that all of the Canadian maritime documents required under this Part have been obtained.
Marginal note:Protection of marine environment
186.3 (1) The master of a vessel must take all reasonable measures to ensure the protection of the marine environment.
Marginal note:Duty to take reasonable measures
(2) If the master of a vessel is informed that the vessel may have discharged, has discharged, is discharging or may discharge a pollutant, the master must take reasonable measures to protect the marine environment from the discharge or risk of discharge, including eliminating the risk if feasible. The master of a Canadian vessel must notify the authorized representative of the discharge or risk, unless the risk has been eliminated.
Marginal note:Discharge of pollutant prohibited
187 No person or vessel shall discharge a prescribed pollutant, except in accordance with the regulations made under this Part or a permit granted under Division 3 of Part 7 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999.
Marginal note:Implementation of oil pollution emergency plan
188 If a vessel is required by the regulations to have a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan, the vessel shall take reasonable measures to implement the plan in respect of an oil pollution incident.
Directions to Vessels
Marginal note:Powers in case of discharge
189 (1) If the Minister believes on reasonable grounds that a vessel may discharge, or may have discharged, a prescribed pollutant, the Minister may
(a) direct a vessel, if it is about to enter or is within waters to which this Part applies, to provide the Minister with any information that the Minister considers appropriate for the administration of this Part;
(a.1) direct a vessel that is required to have a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan under the regulations to provide him or her with any information concerning it and its implementation;
(b) direct a vessel that is required to have on board a declaration described in paragraph 167(1)(b) to provide information concerning it;
(c) direct a vessel that is within or about to enter waters in respect of which this Part applies to proceed through those waters by the route and in the manner that the Minister may specify; and
(d) direct the vessel to proceed to the place that the Minister may select, by the route and in the manner that the Minister may specify, and to
(i) unload the pollutant, or
(ii) moor, anchor or remain there for any reasonable period that the Minister may specify.
Marginal note:Direction to authorize vessel
(2) The Minister may direct a port authority or a person in charge of a port authority or place to authorize a vessel in respect of which a direction has been made under paragraph (1)(d) to proceed to the place selected by the Minister and to
(a) unload the pollutant; or
(b) moor, anchor or remain there for any reasonable period that the Minister may specify.
- 2001, c. 26, s. 189
- 2005, c. 29, s. 30
- 2023, c. 26, s. 402
190 (1) The Governor in Council may, on the recommendation of the Minister, make regulations respecting the protection of the marine environment, including regulations
(a) prescribing pollutants for the purpose of section 187 and subsection 189(1) and respecting the circumstances in which such pollutants may be discharged;
(b) respecting the circumstances in which persons on board vessels shall report discharges or anticipated discharges, the manner of making the reports and the persons to whom the reports shall be made;
(c) respecting the carrying of pollutants on board a vessel, whether as cargo or fuel;
(d) respecting the control and prevention of pollution of the air by vessels;
(e) respecting reception facilities for oily residues, chemical residues, garbage and sewage;
(f) respecting the control and management of ballast water;
(g) for preventing or reducing the release by vessels into waters of aquatic organisms or pathogens that, if released into those waters, could create hazards to human health, harm organisms, damage amenities, impair biological diversity or interfere with legitimate uses of the waters;
(h) respecting the design, construction, manufacture and maintenance of vessels or classes of vessels;
(i) specifying the machinery, equipment and supplies that must be on board vessels or classes of vessels;
(j) respecting the design, construction, manufacture, maintenance, storage, testing, arrangement and use of vessels’ or classes of vessels’ machinery, equipment and supplies;
(k) respecting the requirements that vessels, or classes of vessels, and their machinery and equipment must meet;
(l) requiring the obtaining of certificates certifying that any of the requirements referred to in paragraph (k) are met;
(m) respecting the inspection and testing of vessels, or classes of vessels, and their machinery, equipment and supplies; and
(n) respecting shipboard hazardous and noxious substances pollution emergency plans.
Marginal note:Application of regulations
(2) Regulations made under subsection (1) apply in respect of vessels that are capable of engaging in the drilling for, or the production, conservation or processing of, oil or gas only if the regulations so state and were made on the joint recommendation of the Minister and the Minister of Natural Resources.
- 2001, c. 26, s. 190
- 2018, c. 27, s. 707(E)
- 2023, c. 26, s. 403
Offences and Punishment
Marginal note:Contravention of Act or regulations
191 (1) Every person who, or vessel that, contravenes any of the following commits an offence:
(a) paragraph 186.1(1)(a) (ensure vessel meets requirements);
(a.1) paragraph 186.1(1)(b) (develop procedures);
(a.2) paragraph 186.1(1)(c) (ensure emergency procedures training);
(a.3) paragraph 186.1(1)(d) (ensure environmental protection training);
(a.4) paragraph 186.1(2)(a) (ensure vessel inspected);
(a.5) paragraph 186.1(2)(b) (ensure terms and conditions met);
(a.6) section 186.2 (obtain Canadian maritime documents);
(a.7) subsection 186.3(1) (protection of marine environment);
(a.8) subsection 186.3(2) (take reasonable measures);
(a.9) section 187 (discharge of a pollutant);
(b) section 188 (implement shipboard oil pollution emergency plan);
(c) a direction given under subparagraph 189(1)(d)(i) (direction to proceed to a place and unload a pollutant);
(c.1) a direction given under subsection 189(2) (direction to authorize a vessel); and
(d) a provision of the regulations made under this Part.
(2) Every person or vessel that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable on summary conviction to a fine of not more than $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than 18 months, or to both.
Marginal note:Continuing offence
(3) If an offence under paragraph (1)(a) is committed or continued on more than one day, the person or vessel that committed it is liable to be convicted for a separate offence for each day on which it is committed or continued.
Marginal note:Factors to be considered
(4) In determining the punishment under subsection (2), the court may have regard to the following factors:
(a) the harm or risk of harm caused by the offence;
(b) an estimate of the total costs of clean-up, of harm caused, and of the best available mitigation measures;
(c) the remedial action taken, or proposed to be taken, by the offender to mitigate the harm;
(d) whether the discharge or anticipated discharge was reported in accordance with the regulations made under paragraph 190(1)(b);
(e) any economic benefits accruing to the offender that, but for the offence, the offender would not have received; and
(f) any evidence from which the court may reasonably conclude that the offender has a history of non-compliance with legislation designed to prevent or to minimize pollution.
- 2001, c. 26, s. 191
- 2023, c. 26, s. 404
Marginal note:Contravention of directions
192 (1) Every vessel commits an offence that contravenes
(a) a direction given under paragraph 189(1)(a) or (b) (direction to provide information);
(a.1) a direction given under paragraph 189(1)(a.1) (direction to provide information — shipboard oil pollution emergency plan);
(b) a direction given under paragraph 189(1)(c) (direction to proceed by a specified route); or
(c) a direction given under subparagraph 189(1)(d)(ii) (direction to proceed to a place and remain there).
(2) Every vessel that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable on summary conviction to a fine of not more than $100,000.
- 2001, c. 26, s. 192
- 2023, c. 26, s. 405
Marginal note:Court orders
193 If an offender is convicted of an offence under this Part, in addition to imposing any other punishment that may be imposed under this Act, the court may, having regard to the nature of the offence and the circumstances surrounding its commission, make an order having any or all of the following effects:
(a) prohibiting the offender from performing any act or engaging in any activity that may result in the continuation or repetition of the offence;
(b) directing the offender to publish the facts relating to the conviction;
(c) directing the offender to submit to the Minister, on application by the Minister made within three years after the date of the conviction, any information with respect to the offender’s activities that the court considers appropriate and just in the circumstances;
(d) in the case of a discharge, directing the offender to pay an amount for the purpose of conducting research into the ecological use and disposal of the pollutant in respect of which the offence was committed; and
(e) requiring the offender to comply with any other reasonable conditions that the court considers appropriate and just in the circumstances for securing the offender’s good conduct and preventing the offender from repeating the same offence or committing other offences.
PART 10Pleasure Craft
194 The definitions in this section apply in this Part.
- enforcement officer
enforcement officer means
(a) a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police;
(b) a member of any harbour or river police force;
(c) a member of any provincial, county or municipal police force; and
(d) any person, or member of a class of persons, designated under subsection 196(1). (agent de l’autorité)
inspector means a pleasure craft safety inspector designated under subsection 195(1). (inspecteur)
licence means a licence issued for a pleasure craft under this Part. (permis)
Minister means the Minister of Transport. (ministre)
(a) a substance that, if added to any waters, would degrade or alter or form part of a process of degradation or alteration of the quality of the waters to an extent that is detrimental to their use by humans or by an animal or a plant that is useful to humans; and
(b) any water that contains a substance in such a quantity or concentration, or that has been so treated, processed or changed, by heat or other means, from a natural state, that it would, if added to any waters, degrade or alter or form part of a process of degradation or alteration of the quality of the waters to an extent that is detrimental to their use by humans or by an animal or a plant that is useful to humans.
It includes oil, hazardous and noxious substances and any substance or class of substances that is prescribed for the purpose of Part 8 (Pollution Prevention and Response — Department of Transport and Department of Fisheries and Oceans) to be a pollutant. (polluant)
- 2001, c. 26, s. 194
- 2005, c. 29, s. 31
- 2023, c. 26, s. 406
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