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Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

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Act current to 2021-06-03 and last amended on 2021-05-06. Previous Versions

PART VIIIOffences Against the Person and Reputation (continued)

Kidnapping, Trafficking in Persons, Hostage Taking and Abduction (continued)

Marginal note:Exploitation

  •  (1) For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them to provide, or offer to provide, labour or a service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances, could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe that their safety or the safety of a person known to them would be threatened if they failed to provide, or offer to provide, the labour or service.

  • Marginal note:Factors

    (2) In determining whether an accused exploits another person under subsection (1), the Court may consider, among other factors, whether the accused

    • (a) used or threatened to use force or another form of coercion;

    • (b) used deception; or

    • (c) abused a position of trust, power or authority.

  • Marginal note:Organ or tissue removal

    (3) For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them, by means of deception or the use or threat of force or of any other form of coercion, to have an organ or tissue removed.

Marginal note:Hostage taking

  •  (1) Everyone takes a person hostage who — with intent to induce any person, other than the hostage, or any group of persons or any state or international or intergovernmental organization to commit or cause to be committed any act or omission as a condition, whether express or implied, of the release of the hostage —

    • (a) confines, imprisons, forcibly seizes or detains that person; and

    • (b) in any manner utters, conveys or causes any person to receive a threat that the death of, or bodily harm to, the hostage will be caused or that the confinement, imprisonment or detention of the hostage will be continued.

  • Marginal note:Hostage-taking

    (2) Every person who takes a person hostage is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

    • (a) if a restricted firearm or prohibited firearm is used in the commission of the offence or if any firearm is used in the commission of the offence and the offence is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal organization, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of

      • (i) in the case of a first offence, five years, and

      • (ii) in the case of a second or subsequent offence, seven years;

    • (a.1) in any other case where a firearm is used in the commission of the offence, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of four years; and

    • (b) in any other case, to imprisonment for life.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent offences

    (2.1) In determining, for the purpose of paragraph (2)(a), whether a convicted person has committed a second or subsequent offence, if the person was earlier convicted of any of the following offences, that offence is to be considered as an earlier offence:

    • (a) an offence under this section;

    • (b) an offence under subsection 85(1) or (2) or section 244 or 244.2; or

    • (c) an offence under section 220, 236, 239, 272 or 273, subsection 279(1) or section 344 or 346 if a firearm was used in the commission of the offence.

    However, an earlier offence shall not be taken into account if 10 years have elapsed between the day on which the person was convicted of the earlier offence and the day on which the person was convicted of the offence for which sentence is being imposed, not taking into account any time in custody.

  • Marginal note:Sequence of convictions only

    (2.2) For the purposes of subsection (2.1), the only question to be considered is the sequence of convictions and no consideration shall be given to the sequence of commission of offences or whether any offence occurred before or after any conviction.

  • (3) [Repealed, 2018, c. 29, s. 27]

  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 40
  • 1995, c. 39, s. 148
  • 2008, c. 6, s. 31
  • 2009, c. 22, s. 13
  • 2018, c. 29, s. 27

Marginal note:Abduction of person under age of 16

  •  (1) Every person who, without lawful authority, takes or causes to be taken a person under the age of 16 years out of the possession of and against the will of the parent or guardian of that person or of any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Definition of guardian

    (2) In this section and sections 281 to 283, guardian includes any person who has in law or in fact the custody or control of another person.

Marginal note:Abduction of person under age of 14

 Every person who, not being the parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a person under the age of 14 years, unlawfully takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours that person with intent to deprive a parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person, of the possession of that person is guilty of

  • (a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years; or

  • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Marginal note:Abduction in contravention of custody or parenting order

  •  (1) Every one who, being the parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a child under the age of 14 years, takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours that child, in contravention of a custody order or a parenting order made by a court anywhere in Canada, with intent to deprive a parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that child, of the possession of that child is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:If no belief in validity of custody order or parenting order

    (2) If a count charges an offence under subsection (1) and the offence is not proven only because the accused did not believe that there was a valid custody order or parenting order but the evidence does prove an offence under section 283, the accused may be convicted of an offence under that section.

Marginal note:Abduction

  •  (1) Everyone who, being the parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a child under the age of 14 years, takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours that child, whether or not there is an order referred to in subsection 282(1) in respect of the child , with intent to deprive a parent, guardian or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that child, of the possession of that child, is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Consent required

    (2) No proceedings may be commenced under subsection (1) without the consent of the Attorney General or counsel instructed by him for that purpose.

Marginal note:Defence

 No one shall be found guilty of an offence under sections 281 to 283 if he establishes that the taking, enticing away, concealing, detaining, receiving or harbouring of any young person was done with the consent of the parent, guardian or other person having the lawful possession, care or charge of that young person.

  • 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20
 
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